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Letter to the Editor
1 (
1
); 120-121
doi:
10.25259/FH_20230101_115

Unraveling the Aging Enigma: Taurine's Potential in Defying the Effects of Time

KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research (KAHER), Belagavi
Department of Biochemistry, All India Medical Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Corresponding Author: Prof. Madan M Godbole, Distinguished Professor KAHER, Belagavi E-mail: madangodbole@yahoo.co.in
Licence
This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

Dear Editor,

Aging, an enigma that has captured the attention of scientists throughout history, is a time-dependent functional decline experienced by the majority of living organisms. Notably, recent leading-edge research has identified nine major hallmarks of aging, including genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alteration, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. These hallmarks highlight the intricate nature of aging and reinforce the urgent need for anti-aging interventions that extend both lifespan and healthspan (Singh et al 2023).

Taurine, a semi-essential micronutrient abundantly found in eukaryotic phyla, has emerged as a promising candidate in the quest to unravel the mysteries of aging. The enzyme cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD) facilitates the conversion of cysteine to taurine within mammalian cells. Taurine can be absorbed by cells through taurine transporters or acquired through dietary sources. Its physiological effects encompass a wide range of functions, including the regulation of glucose levels, conversion of bile acids into bile salts, detoxification, membrane stabilization, blood pressure control, osmoregulation, neurotransmission modulation, and mitochondrial activity and cellular calcium regulation.

Compelling research suggests that taurine insufficiency plays a significant role in the aging process. Reversing this deficiency through taurine supplementation has shown promising results in boosting indicators of healthy lifespan in various species, including worms, mice, and monkeys. Interestingly, taurine supplementation has exhibited a greater impact on the healthy lifespan of female mice, indicating potential sex-specific mechanisms at play.

Furthermore, taurine has been implicated in multiple aging-related phenomena. Reduced taurinylation of tRNAs has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, a crucial aspect of aging. Additionally, disruptions in taurine metabolic pathway in humans have been linked to age-related conditions, including as obesity, diabetes, and inflammation. Taurine's influence on chromatin conformation and alterations in DNA and histone methylation suggest its role in regulating gene expression during the aging process. Moreover, taurine supplementation has shown the potential to enhance tissue regeneration by increasing the local stem cell population.

While taurine holds immense promise for promoting health and extending lifespan, certain aspects require further exploration. The impact of taurine on male subjects, particularly in primate studies, warrants investigation to better understand its effects across genders. Additionally, future research should delve into the precise mechanisms by which taurine influences various cell types and synthesis of biomolecule that are essential for cellular function, potentially uncovering new avenues for anti-aging therapies.

In conclusion, the study of aging continues to captivate scientists as they unravel its intricate complexities. Taurine, with its diverse physiological effects and proven potential in boosting indicators of healthy lifespan, stands as an intriguing area of research in the pursuit of healthier lifespan. In this context, understanding taurine's mechanisms of action, potential benefits, and interactions with other biomolecules becomes paramount. Long-term investigations, including clinical trials, are crucial to establish the effectiveness and safety of taurine in anti-aging therapies. Conducting such trials poses a real-world challenge as there is no consensus on the indicators of aging that should be measured. Determining appropriate aging outcome indicators to assess the efficacy and safety of taurine in humans requires ongoing scientific dialogue.

References

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